Much of this bibliography has been developed in consultation with Dr. Ebba Koch. The remainder is built around readings from undergraduate and graduate courses in Islamic art and architecture at the University of Toronto and the University of Victoria (where possible I have provided a hyperlink to the source).

Primary Sources:

Führer, A. The Monumental Antiquities and Inscriptions in the North-Western Provinces and Oudh. ASINIS 12. Allahabad, 1891 rprnt. Varanasi/New Delhi, 1969.

Henry Nevill. Allahabad: A Gazetteer, District Gazetteers of the United Provinces of Agra and Oudh. Vol. 23. Allahabad: Government Press, 1911.

Jahangir, Emperor of Hindustan, Mu‘tamad Khan, and Muhammad Hadi. The Tuzuk-i-Jahangiri or Memoirs of Jahangir. Henry Beveridge and Alexander Rogers (translators). London: Royal Asiatic Society, 1909.

Jahangir, Emperor of Hindustan, Mu‘tamad Khan, and Muhammad Hadi. The Jahangirnama: Memoirs of Jahangir, Emperor of India. Wheeler M. Thackston (translator and editor). Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999.

Secondary Sources:

Theory and Methodology:

Koch, Ebba. Mughal Architecture: An Outline of its History and Development. Delhi: Oxford University Press, 2002 (second edition).

Koch, Ebba. The Complete Taj Mahal and the Riverfront Gardens of Agra. London: Thames & Hudson, 2012 (second edition).

Mughal Art and Architecture:

Asher, Catherine. ‘The Architecture of Raja Man Singh: A Study of Sub-imperial Patronage’ in Barbara Stoler Miller (ed.), The Powers of Art: Patronage in Indian Culture, New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1992: 183–201.

Asher, Catherine. Architecture of Mughal India. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1992, rprnt.

Asher, Catherine. “Building a Legacy: Sher Shah’s Architecture and the Politics of Propaganda” in The Architecture of Indian Sultanates. Mumbai: Marg Publications, 2006: 56-67.

Baer, Eva. Islamic Ornament. New York: New York University Press, 1989.

Brand, Michael. “Orthodoxy, Innovation, and Revival: Considerations of the Past in Imperial Mughal Tomb Architecture” in Muqarnas 10 (1993): 323-334.

Chida-Razvi, Mehreen. The Imperial Mughal Tomb of Jahangir: History, Construction, and Production. Ph.D. Dissertation. University of London, 2012.

Daneshvari, Abbas. Medieval Tomb Towers of Iran, An Iconographical Study. Lexington, KY: Mazda Publishers, 1986.

Desai, Zia-ud-Din. “Inscriptions from the Khusrau Bagh, Allahabad” in Epigraphia Indica: Arabic and Persian Supplement. New Delhi: Archaeological Survey of India, 1961: 64-68.

Desai, Zia-ud-Din. “A Foreign Dignitary’s Visit to Akbar’s Tomb: A First-Hand Account” in I.A. Khan (ed.), Akbar and his Age, New Delhi: Indian Council of Historical Research Monograph series 5, 1999.

Dodd, Erica. “The Image of the Word: Notes on the Religious Iconography of Islam” in Berytus 18 (1969): 35-61.

Flood, Finbarr Barry. Objects of Translation: Material Culture and the Medieval “Hindu-Muslim” Encounter. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2009.

Koch, Ebba. Mughal Art and Imperial Ideology: Collected Essays. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001.

Lowry, Glenn. “Humanyu’s Tomb: Form, Function, and Meaning in Early Mughal Architecture” in Muqarnas 4 (1987): 133-148.

Leisten, Thomas. “Between Orthodoxy and Exegesis: Some Aspects of Attitudes in the Shari’a towards Funerary Architecture” in Muqarnas 7 (1990): 12–22.

Parodi, Laura. “The Bibi ka Maqbara in Aurangabad: A Landmark of Mughal Power in the Deccan” in East & West 48.3/4 (1998): 349-383.

Colonial Reception of Mughal Art and Architecture:

Archer, Mildred. Early Views of India: The Picturesque Journeys of Thomas and William Daniell 1786–1794, London: Thames & Hudson, 1980.

Hodges, William. Travels in India during the Years 1780, 1781, 1782 and 1783. London, 1794 rprnt. New Delhi, 1999.

Mughal History:

Faruqui, Munis. The Princes of the Mughal Empire. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002.

Lefèvre, Corinne. “Pouvoir et noblesse dans l’empire moghol. Perspectives du règne de Jahāngīr (1605–1627)” in Annales. Histoire, Sciences Sociales 62.6 (2007): 1287–1312.

Prasad, Beni. History of Jahangir. Madras: Oxford University Press, 1922.

Richards, John. The Mughal Empire. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993.

Richards, John. “The Formulation of Imperial Authority under Akbar and Jahangir” in Kingship and Authority in India. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1978.

Streusand, Dougals. The Formation of the Mughal Empire. Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1989.

Taft, Frances. “Honor and Alliance: Reconsidering Mughal-Rajput Marriages”, in Karine Schomer, Joan L. Erdman, Deryck O. Lodrick and Lloyd I. Rudolph (eds), The Idea of Rajasthan: Explorations in Regional Identity. Vol. 2: Institutions, New Delhi: Manohar Publishers and Distributors, 1994: 217–41.

Schimmel, Annemarie. The Empire of the Great Mughals. London: Reaktion Books, 2004.


Blair, Sheila & Jonathan Bloom. The Art and Architecture of Islam 1250-1800. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1995.

Ettinghausen, Richard, Oleg Grabar, and Marilyn Jenkins. Islamic Art and Architecture, 650-1250, second edition. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2003.

Grabar, Oleg. The Formation of Islamic Architecture. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1973.

Hillenbrand, Robert. Islamic Architecture: Form, Function and Meaning. New York: Columbia University Press, 1995.

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